Companies to disclose material accounting policy information – Amendments to IndAS

Companies to disclose material accounting policy information in financial statements. The Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules 2023

MCA has notified Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2023 amending the Companies (Indian Accounting Standards) Rules, 2015. The amendments come into force with effect from 1st day of April, 2023 i.e. Financial Year 2023-24. One of the major change is that Companies, in their financial statements shall disclose material accounting policy information as against hitherto requirement of disclosing “significant accounting policies” 

The amendments have been made to the following IndAS :

Ind AS-101  First-time Adoption of Indian Accounting Standards
Ind AS-102 Share-based Payment
Ind AS-107 Financial Instruments Disclosures
IndAS-109 Financial Instruments
IndAS-115 Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Presentation of Financial Statements
An entity shall disclose material accounting policy information. Accounting policy information is material if, when considered together with other information included in an entity’s financial statements, it can reasonably be expected to influence decisions that the primary users of general purpose financial statements make on the basis of those financial statements.

Accounting policy information that relates to immaterial transactions, other events or conditions is immaterial and need not be disclosed. Accounting policy information may nevertheless be material because of the nature of the related transactions, other events or conditions, even if the amounts are immaterial. However, not all accounting policy information relating to material transactions, other events or conditions is itself material.

Accounting policy information is expected to be material if users of an entity’s financial statements would need it to understand other material information in the financial statements. For example, an entity is likely to consider accounting policy information material to its financial statements if that information relates to material transactions, other events or conditions and:

(a) the entity changed its accounting policy during the reporting period and this change resulted in a material change to the information in the financial statements;

(b) the entity chose the accounting policy from one or more options permitted by Ind ASs;

(c) the accounting policy was developed in accordance with Ind AS 8 in the absence of an Ind AS that specifically applies;(d)the accounting policy relates to an area for which an entity is required to make significant judgements or assumptions in applying an accounting policy, and the entity discloses those judgements or assumptions in accordance with paragraphs 122 and 125; or

(e) the accounting required for them is complex and users of the entity’s financial statements would otherwise not understand those material transactions, other events or conditions—such a situation could arise if an entity applies more than one Ind AS to a class of material transactions.

Accounting policy information that focuses on how an entity has applied the requirements of the Ind ASs to its own circumstances provides entity-specific information that is more useful to users of financial statements than standardised information, or information that only duplicates or summarises the requirements of the Ind ASs.

If an entity discloses immaterial accounting policy information, such information shall not obscure material accounting policy information.

An entity’s conclusion that accounting policy information is immaterial does not affect the related disclosure requirements set out in other Ind ASs.

An entity shall disclose, along with material accounting policy information or other notes, the judgements, apart from those involving estimations (see paragraph 125), that management has made in the process of applying the entity’s accounting policies and that have the most significant effect on the amounts recognised in the financial statements.


Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors

Accounting estimates

An accounting policy may require items in financial statements to be measured in a way that involves measurement uncertainty—that is, the accounting policy may require such items to be measured at monetary amounts that cannot be observed directly and must instead be estimated. In such a case, an entity develops an accounting estimate to achieve the objective set out by the accounting policy. Developing accounting estimates involves the use of judgements or assumptions based on the latest available, reliable information. Examples of accounting estimates include:

(a) a loss allowance for expected credit losses, applying Ind AS 109, Financial Instruments; 

(b) the net realisable value of an item of inventory, applying Ind AS 2 Inventories;

(c) the fair value of an asset or liability, applying Ind AS 113, Fair Value Measurement;

(d) the depreciation expense for an item of property, plant and equipment, applying Ind AS 16; and

(e) a provision for warranty obligations, applying Ind AS 37, Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets

An entity uses measurement techniques and inputs to develop an accounting estimate. Measurement techniques include estimation techniques (for example, techniques used to measure a loss allowance for expected credit losses applying Ind AS 109) and valuation techniques (for example, techniques used to measure the fair value of an asset or liability applying Ind AS 113).

The term ‘estimate’ in Ind AS sometimes refers to an estimate that is not an accounting estimate as defined in this Standard. For example, it sometimes refers to an input used in developing accounting estimates.

Changes in accounting estimates

An entity may need to change an accounting estimate if changes occur in the circumstances on which the accounting estimate was based or as a result of new information, new developments or more experience. By its nature, a change in an accounting estimate does not relate to prior periods and is not the correction of an error.

The effects on an accounting estimate of a change in an input or a change in a measurement technique are changes in accounting estimates unless they result from the correction of prior period error.

Applying changes in accounting estimates

Prospective recognition of the effect of a change in an accounting estimate means that the change is applied to transactions, other events and conditions from the date of that change. A change in an accounting estimate may affect only the current period’s profit or loss, or the profit or loss of both the current period and future periods. For example, a change in a loss allowance for expected credit losses affects only the current period’s profit or loss and therefore is recognised in the current period. However, a change in the estimated useful life of, or the expected pattern of consumption of the future economic benefits embodied in, a depreciable asset affects depreciation expense for the current period and for each future period during the asset’s remaining useful life. In both cases, the effect of the change relating to the current period is recognised as income or expense in the current period. The effect, if any, on future periods is recognised as income or expense in those future periods.

Corrections of errors are distinguished from changes in accounting estimates. Accounting estimates by their nature are approximations that may need changing as additional information becomes known. For example, the gain or loss recognised on the outcome of a contingency is not the correction of an error.


Income Taxes

Recognition of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets


Interim Financial Reporting

Download MCA Notification No. G.S.R.242(E) dated 31.03.2023 Click Here >>

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